PZU Group companies that carry out insurance activity apply guidance included in IFRS 4 regarding classification of their products as insurance contracts subject to IFRS 4 or investment contracts. A contract can be classified as an insurance contract only when the insurance covered event may necessitate for the insurer to pay additional claims in any scenario except from those lacking economic contents (i.e. which do not visibly impact the economics of transactions), i.e., when the contract involves transfer of a significant insurance risk.
Assessment whether a contract does transfer significant actuarial risk requires analysis of cash flows related to a product under various scenarios and estimation of probability of their occurrence. The assessment is based on a judgment, which significantly impacts accounting principles applied.
Based on the assumptions adopted by the PZU Group, significant insurance risk occurs when an insured event results in payment of claims at least 10% higher than claims paid if the event had not occurred. Based on the aforementioned criterion, contracts concluded are recognized either in accordance with IFRS 4 or IAS 39.
4.5.1 Contract classification in non-life insurance
Analysis carried out proves that all property and personal insurance contract transfer significant insurance risk and therefore are governed by regulations of IFRS 4 as opposed to IAS 39.
Additionally, in light of work on the second stage of IFRS 4 carried out by IASB, the Group continues application of insurance contract accounting to financial guarantees that meet the definition of a financial instrument in accordance with amended IAS 39 and IFRS 4 effective from 1 January 2006.
4.5.2 Classification of life insurance contracts
Based on an analysis, it was concluded that products that do not transfer significant insurance risk (they include certain products with guaranteed return rate and some unit-linked ones) and thus do not meet the definition of an insurance contract pursuant to IFRS 4. Therefore, these products have been classified as investment contracts measured in accordance with IAS 39 for the purpose of these consolidated financial statements, which means that – depending on the product construction and classification – at depreciated cost or fair value.
Additionally, no life insurance contracts were identified which would provide for the transfer of both insurance and financial risk and require unbundling of insurance and investment activities. In the case of contracts for which unbundling of embedded options (e.g. the right to surrender a contract, change it into a premium-free contract, guaranteed annuity for a set premium, indexation of the sum insured and premiums) is permitted, but not required, the investment component is not unbundled.